När har en stat jurisdiktion?

Hej, nu fortsätter jag att skriva om internationell rätt då det här med juridiken är något jag brinner för!.

När nu stat har definierats i föregående inlägg, så kommer nästa naturliga steg, nämligen frågan om När har stater jurisdiktion?

I boken International law så lyfter Jan Klabbers fram att det finns fem olika principer som måste vara uppfyllda för att staten skall anses ha jurisdiktion. Dessa fem principer är: (1) Territorialitet , (2) Nationalitet, (3) Skydd, (4) Passiv personlighet, och (5) Universell jurisdiktion.

Territorialitet förklarar Klabbers (2013) som så att:  “The fons et origo of jurisdiction of states is the priniciple of territoriality, signifying that sovereignty and territory go hand in hand. The main idea is that states can exercise authority over all acts that take place on their territory through legislation, and prosecute all those who violate the laws in force on that territory”. (Klabbers.2013:92)

Nationalitet förklarar Klabbers (2013) som så att: “If the principle of territoriality is undisputed, so too is the principle of nationality: states can claim authority over their nationals no matter where they are” (Klabbers.2013:93)

Skydd förklarar Klabbers (2013) som så att: “It is also generally accepted that states can claim jurisdiction over activities that endanger them, even if those activities take place elsewhere and are ascribed to non-nationals”. (Klabbers.2013:93)

Passiv personlighet förklarar Klabbers (2013) som så att: “A recent addition, or so it seems, and highly controversial, is the principle of passive personality. This holds that a state can prosecute anyone who harms its nationals, no matter where this occurs”. (Klabbers.2013:93)

Universell jurisdiktion förklarar Klabbers (2013) som så att: “The most interesting and imaginative of the prinnciples is that of universal jurisdiction. Under this idea, some crimes are so abhorrent that all states can legislate and prosecute, regardles of the involvement of their territory or nationals”. (Klabbers.2013:94)

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